- Typographical errors
- All of the above, plus…
- Word choice
- Sentence structure
What are the levels of editing?
There are essentially three levels of editing: light (proofreading), medium (copyediting), and heavy (substantive).
• Proofreading requires an editor to correct spelling and punctuation mistakes, obvious grammar and syntax errors, and inconsistent usage. Most projects include proofreading.
• Copyediting takes more time. At this level, the editor may review writing style, delete unnecessary words, substitute new words for any that are misused or awkward, and make sure words convey the correct meaning. Also, the editor may rearrange copy to create a more logical flow of ideas.
• Substantive editing comes into play when a writer is having difficulty with a rough draft. The editor can help identify areas where deeper revisions can make a difference. Among other things, the editor may suggest structural changes, create a new outline, propose additions or deletions, or insert readability aids. At this level, the editor may also ask you to rewrite portions of the material.
In what ways does professional editing benefit a project?
• Increases clarity by asking basic questions, including “Is anything missing?” “Can some things be restated?” “Will everyone understand this?”
• Saves time and effort. After finishing a draft, you may lack the patience or objectivity to revise it. But a professional editor approaches your manuscript with fresh eyes, an open mind, and the will to finish the task.
• Saves money. Yes, hiring an editor costs money. But you’ll save money over the long term because an editor’s experience reduces reading time and increases productivity.
• Presents you accurately. Careful editing ensures that the picture formed in the readers’ minds is one you intend, not one that emerges accidentally.
Contact Katharine at firstname.lastname@example.org to discuss details of your needs.